HomeUncategorisedOpinion: Opinion: Indian Police - From Colonial Origins To Age Of AI

Opinion: Opinion: Indian Police – From Colonial Origins To Age Of AI

As India approaches its 76th Independence Day, exploring the historic trajectory of its police force becomes crucial. From its origins during the Sepoy Mutiny as a tool of colonial dominance, the police have undergone a remarkable metamorphosis over the span of several decades.

Evolution of Indian Police

The origin of the Indian police can be traced back to the aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny under the colonial rule. Designed to serve the interests of the British administration, the police force emerged with the enactment of the Indian Police Act of 1861. This centralization of power often distanced law enforcement from the public, breeding mistrust. Throughout the colonial era, the police were a tool of suppressing dissent and asserting control.

The Fraser Commission

The Fraser Commission, officially known as the Police Commission of 1902-1903, was appointed by the British colonial government to review and recommend reforms to the police administration in India. It was led by Sir Andrew Fraser and David Bayley.

The commission’s recommendations included improvements in police organization, training, recruitment, and a police commissioner system in major cities like Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. The objective was to enhance police efficiency, professionalism, and accountability, though areas with rural, agrarian populations retained the district police system. Regrettably, the remnants of colonial-era policing, like the archaic Indian Police Act of 1861, continue to influence the police force even after 76 years of independence.

Post-Independence Reforms and Challenges

After India’s independence in 1947, there was dedicated effort to revamp the police force for greater efficiency. Various police commissions and committees were instituted to address issues like professionalism, accountability, and community-oriented policing. Yet the vestiges of colonial-era practices, epitomized by the Indian Police Act of 1861, persist, straining police-public relations and eroding trust.

Challenges in Modern Times

In the modern era, the Indian police face multifaceted challenges related to a wide range of issues. These challenges include tackling communal unrest, addressing left-wing extremism, combatting narcoterrorism, thwarting human trafficking networks, countering various forms of terrorism, and managing cross-border threats. The increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) adds another layer of complexity to the security landscape.

The proliferation of technology has introduced new dimensions to criminal activities. The surge in cybercrimes poses a distinctive menace, as criminals leverage technology and anonymity to outpace traditional law enforcement efforts. This digital realm encompasses a range of crimes, from financial fraud and data breaches to online harassment and identity theft. The police force must continually adapt to this evolving landscape to effectively combat these digital threats.

Artificial intelligence (AI) further compounds the complexities faced by law enforcement agencies. The rapid advancement of AI technology has the potential of revolutionising crime and law enforcement tactics. Criminals could exploit AI algorithms for sophisticated planning and execution of crimes, making them harder to predict and prevent. This necessitates specialized training and resources to develop AI expertise within the police force, and enabling them to stay ahead of emerging threats.

As urbanization accelerates and societies become more interconnected, challenges like managing public events and maintaining crowd control during large gatherings also gain prominence. Also, the need to address environmental crimes, such as illegal wildlife trade and pollution, poses new hurdles for law enforcement agencies.

In this ever-changing landscape, the Indian police force must continually adapt, evolve, and innovate to effectively address these emerging challenges and ensure the safety and security of citizens

The Imperative of Political and Democratic Oversight

While police autonomy has merits, a balanced approach intertwining political and democratic oversight is vital. Unfettered police autonomy risks imbalances and reduced government accountability. Politicians, closer to the public, have a nuanced understanding of citizens’ concerns and policing. Democratic oversight ensures law enforcement serves the public’s best interests while maintaining impartiality and accountability.

Revisiting and Implementing Recommendations

In recent years, retired Indian Police Service officers approached the Supreme Court to champion police reform, emphasising accountability and autonomy. However, the inclusion of the Union Public Service Commission in selecting police chiefs, though well-intentioned, introduced complexities. Policing, governed by the Indian Constitution, is state jurisdiction, necessitating active engagement with democratically elected governments. The need to revisit the 2006 recommendations and their effective implementation looms large. Fresh insights must be placed before the Supreme Court for an evaluation of policing advancements, particularly reshaping the police’s public image.


As India celebrates its 76th Independence Day, the Indian police force’s journey stands testament to the dynamic evolution of law enforcement. To forge a modern and efficient police force, historical suggestions should be reviewed, outdated laws modernized, and cooperation nurtured among political leadership, law enforcement agencies, and the public. Embracing technology, reinforcing accountability, and strengthening police-community relations will empower the Indian police to address modern challenges. Honouring history while embracing reform is pivotal in crafting a police force dedicated to the public good and upholding democratic ideals in a shifting global context. Besides, treating victims and the public with empathy and respect comes with a priceless tag – building trust, safety, and a harmonious society.

(Dr. Shailendra Srivastava, now retired IPS officer, served the Government of Madhya Pradesh for more than 34 years.)

Disclaimer: These are the personal opinions of the author

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